Tensile Tests

Tensile and tensile shearing tests are performed in a variety of ways.
14a_Unidirectional_laminates
11_Single filaments

Tensile Tests on Single Filaments 

The diameter of the individual filament lies in the micrometer range. The filament is first secured to a small paper frame according to ISO 11566 and then aligned and fixed in the clamping mechanism of the testing machine. After cutting through the frame, the properties can be determined under tensile load.
13_Pultruded_bars

Tensile Tests on Pultruded GFRP Bars

Depending on the design and surface structure of the specimen, testing is done with cap strips on the clamping ends, or without cap strips with special jaw inserts for hydraulic or pneumatic specimen grips. This test is described in ASTM D3916. 

Tensile Tests on Multidirectional Laminates

Depending on the size of the textile structure, multidirectional laminates are tested with large specimen widths of 25 mm or even 50 mm. According to ISO 527-4, the thickness of the specimen can equal 10 mm or less. Due to the large specimen cross-sections, very large tensile forces of over 300 kN can occur. To measure strain, Zwick uses strain gages, mechanical extensometers (clip-on, makroXtens, multiXtens) or optical extensometers (videoXtens HP).
15_Multidirektional_laminates
16b_Notch tensile_FHT

Notch Tensile Tests (Open Hole Tensile)

This test characterizes the influence of a hole on the tensile strength of a laminate. The result is usually presented as a notch factor, which gives the ratio of damaged to undamaged specimen. 

Tensile Tests on Bolted Laminates (Filled Hole Tensile)

This test uses the same specimen as the notch tensile test, and the hole is closed with a threaded connection.
17_Graph_filiment strands

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