Testing on Textile Fabrics; Coated Textiles and Geotextiles

EN ISO 13934-1, EN ISO 13937-2, EN ISO 9073-4, ISO 3303, EN ISO 12236, EN ISO 10319, ISO 4606

The tests carried out on textile fabrics are just as varied as the uses found for their finished products. Depending on test requirements, specimens are tested in a wet or dry state, having been removed parallel to the warp and weft directions of the fabric.

Zwick offers ideal solutions for these types of tests: wide ranging design testing machines, well-suited specimen grips, and corresponding grip inserts, as well as testXpert software proven for every application.

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Tensile Tests on Textile Fabrics According to EN ISO 13934-1

In tests according to EN ISO 13934-1, 50 mm-wide strip specimens are tested both in a standard atmosphere and in a wet condition, once in the warp and once in the weft direction. Pneumatic grips are preferred due to the surface properties of the fabric used. This standard requires determination of maximum force and (measured via crosshead travel) elongation at maximum force.
The test method described applies mainly to woven textiles; it can be used for other fabrics, but is usually not applicable to elastic web goods, geotextiles, non-wovens, coated fabrics, glass-fiber fabrics, and textile fabrics made of carbon fibers or polyolefin-fiber yarns. Specimen removal takes place either as stipulated in the material specification for the textile fabric or as agreed between the interested parties. The test samples must have no creases, folds, selvedge or areas that are not representative of the fabric. An optical extension measuring system can be used for higher measurement accuracy without clamping influence. A mechanical measuring system should be used only when the risk of damage at specimen break does not exist. Capstan grips are ideal when jaw breaks or flat clamping jaw slippage cannot be prevented. Elongation measurement must be carried out with an optical extension measuring system because the crosshead travel reference value for the strain cannot be precisely defined.
DIN EN ISO 139341 capstan universal
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Tear Resistance on Textiles According to EN ISO 13937-2 and EN ISO 9073-4

Specially cut specimens are used for the tear growth test. Tests according to EN ISO 9073-4 are carried out on trapezoid specimens, whereby the use of very wide jaws should be noted. Pneumatic grips are preferred because they offer even and subsequent adjustment of the gripping.

Tests according to DIN EN ISO 13937-2, the so-called trouser tear test, use test specimens cut to resemble a pair of trouser legs. The tear force is the force required to propagate this cut when applied parallel to the cut and the textile fabric tears in the direction of the force. The use of pneumatic grips is recommended.

DIN EN ISO 139372 grips 25kN8297
DIN EN ISO 90734 tear growth
ISO 3303 ball burst test3

Bursting Strength According to ISO 3303 Method A

Bursting strength is the resistance of a specimen held between circular clamps to a unidirectional, uniformly distributed, increasing compression load, up to burst point.

This characteristic is determined according to ISO 3303 Method A, on plastics or rubber-coated fabrics, using a suitable materials testing machine with ring clamps and steel ball.

Tensile Tests on Geo-Fabrics and Non-Woven Geotextiles According to EN ISO 10319

Tensile test on non-woven geotextiles with optical long-travel measuring system, using hydraulic specimen grips, according to EN ISO 10319. The main feature of this method of determining the tensile strength of fabrics is the width of the specimen. For the basic test, the specimen width (200mm) is greater than the length (100mm), as some geotextiles have a tendency to contract, or "neck down", at an angle to the force direction under tensile loading. The extra width reduces the "neck down" effect, providing a relationship closer to expected product behavior in this area. An optical travel measuring system is used because large amounts of energy can be released at break. A mechanical measuring system should be used only when the risk of damage at specimen break does not exist. Alternatively, a mechanical specimen grip must be replaced with hydraulic specimen grip if high forces are used.
Zugversuch an Geogitter nach DIN EN ISO 10319
Zugversuch an Geovlies nach DIN EN ISO 10319

Static Puncture Test (CBR Test) According to EN ISO 12236

EN ISO 12236 describes a method for determining the puncture resistance of geotextiles and related products. The force arising when a flat-ended plunger is pushed through the test specimen is measured. The specimen is clamped between two steel rings via hydraulic end clamping. The test is usually carried out with dry test samples that have been conditioned in the defined climate. The test is applicable to most types of products, but not to materials with openings larger than 10 mm.
Geotextile penetration
DIN EN ISO 12236 manual static puncture test
ISO 4606 double pneumatic 20kN

Tensile Tests on Textile Glass Fabric According to ISO 4606

In this example tests are carried out on textile glass fabric. The international standard specifies the method for determining the force at break and elongation at break of frayed strips of woven textile glass. This method is used for untreated glass fabrics or glass fabrics treated with reinforcement materials, however not for glass fabrics coated with plastics or elastomers.

In tests according to ISO 4606, 50-mm wide strip specimens are tested in the warp and in the weft direction until failure. A clamping length of 200 mm is used. Since high gripping forces are required to hold the specimen in compliance with standards, pneumatic specimen grips are used. The test samples must have no creases, folds, selvedge or areas which are not representative of the fabric.

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